ARK assays employ a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay technology based on competition between drug in the specimen and drug labeled with the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) for binding to antibody reagent. As the latter binds antibody, enzyme activity decreases. In the presence of drug from the specimen, enzyme activity increases and is directly proportional to the drug concentration. Active enzyme converts the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to NADH that is measured spectrophotometrically as a rate of change in absorbance. Endogenous serum G6PDH does not interfere with the results because the coenzyme NAD functions only with the bacterial enzyme used in the assay.